Symbiotic tree species

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Research compiled by Mark Niemoeller

Here’s a species list of Amanita muscaria hosts:

Abies alba, the European silver fir or silver fir, is native to the mountains of Europe

Abies balsamea, balsam fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central British Columbia) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia).

Abies procera, the noble fir, red fir, native to the Cascade Range and Coast Range mountains of extreme northwest California and western Oregon and Washington in the United States.

Betula alleghaniensis, yellow birch, native to North-eastern North America.

Betula lenta, sweet birch, black birch, cherry birch, mahogany birch, or spice birch, native to eastern North America.

Betula nana, the dwarf birch, native to the tundra of the Arctic region.

Betula papyrifera, paper birch, white birch, canoe birch, native to northern North America.

Betula pendula/verrucosa, East Asian white birch, silver birch, or warty birch, native to Europe and parts of Asia.

Betula pubescens (syn. Betula alba), downy birch, moor birch, white birch, European white birch, or hairy birch, native to northern Europe and northern Asia.

Cedrus deodara, Deodar Cedar, in N Virginia

Fagus sylvatica, the European beech, or common beech, native to southern Sweden to northern Sicily, west to France, southern England, northern Portugal, central Spain, and east to northwest Turkey.

Larix decidua, the European larch, is native to the mountains of central Europe Larix occidentalis, Western larch, native to the mountains of western North America, in Canada in southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta, and in the United States in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, northern Idaho, and western Montana.

Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe

Picea glauca, white spruce, native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America.

Picea pungens, the blue spruce, green spruce, white spruce, Colorado spruce, or Colorado blue spruce, native to the Rocky Mountains of the United States.

Picea sitchensis, the Sitka spruce

Pinus banksiana, Jack pine, grey pine, scrub pine, native to eastern North America and Canada.

Pinus cembra, the Swiss stone pine or arolla pine, is native to mountain areas in central Europe from the Alps to the Carpathians.

Pinus contorta, the lodgepole pine, shore pine, beach pine, twisted pine, contorta pine, common in western North America

Pinus echinata, the shortleaf pine, native to the eastern United States from southern most New York State, south to northern Florida, west to eastern

Oklahoma, and southwest to eastern Texas

Pinus elliottii, slash pine, native to the southeastern United States.

Pinus mugo, the creeping pine, dwarf mountain pine, mugo pine, mountain pine, scrub mountain pine or Swiss mountain pine, native to high elevation habitats from southwestern to Central Europe.

Pinus muricata, bishop pine, native to a very restricted range: mostly in California, including several offshore Channel Islands, and a few locations in

Baja California, Mexico. It is always on or near the coast.

Pinus nigra, the Austrian pine or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from Spain to the eastern Mediterranean on Anatolian peninsula of Turkey and on Corsica/Cyprus, including Crimea, and in the high mountains of the Maghreb in North Africa.

Pinus palustris, the longleaf pine, native to the southeastern United States, found along the coastal plain from eastern Texas to southeast Virginia, extending into northern and central Florida.

Pinus patula, patula pine, spreading-leaved pine, or Mexican weeping pine, native to the highlands of Mexico.

Pinus ponderosa, the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, native to the western United States and Canada.

Pinus radiata, the Monterey pine, insignis pine, or radiata pine, native to the Central Coast of California and Mexico.

Pinus resinosa, red pine, Norway pine, native to eastern North America.

Pinus rigida, the pitch pine, native to eastern North America.

Pinus strobus, the eastern white pine, northern white pine, white pine, Weymouth pine (British), and soft pine, native to eastern North America.

Pinus sylvestris, the Scots pine, native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.

Pinus taeda, loblolly pine, native to the Southeastern United States.

Pinus virginiana, Virginia pine, scrub pine, Jersey pine, native to Eastern United States on poorer soils from Long Island in southern New York south through the Appalachian Mountains to western Tennessee and Alabama.

Pinus wallichiana

Populus tremuloides, native to cooler areas of North America, [maybe only mycorrhizal with stands in southwestern Montana in Park County, at Butte and Anaconda].

Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar, or California poplar, native to western North America.

Pseudotsuga menziesii, Douglas fir, native to western North America.

Tsuga canadensis, eastern hemlock, eastern hemlock-spruce, or Canadian hemlock, and in the French-speaking regions of Canada as pruche du Canada, native to eastern North America.

Tsuga heterophylla, the western hemlock, or western hemlock-spruce, native to the west coast of North America.

In New Zealand, Amanita muscaria grows under Castanea sativa, Quercus robur, Eucalyptus ficifolia, E. pauciflora, Kunzea and Leptospermum species, and cultivated Nothofagus trees.

A muscaria has also been associated with Cystus/Cistus species.

A. muscaria var. regalis has been found associated with Dryas and Salix species in interior Alaska.